Methodology – Phase 2

Phase 2

To validate the content through expert judgment, a large group of experts from different countries will be selected. They will be asked to assess the appropriateness of each item for measuring social exclusion, according to the operationalisation carried out of such concept, as well as far the clarity of each item.

A) Selection of experts

In this phase experts in criminal law and/or criminology are located and selected from 18 different countries, mostly North America and Europe. Specifically, they come from: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Switzerland, United States and the United Kingdom.

This decision was based on the project’s objective of designing a measurement instrument for application in the Western developed world, and it encompasses the following geographical areas: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, and English-speaking countries in Europe and outside Europe.

The experts are selected taking into account factors such as academic or professional background, gender, age, ideological orientation and country of origin. The intention is to eventually have a total of 120 international experts collaborating in the project. [Consult list of experts]

B) Validation by international experts

  • 1st phase of validation (experts with at least 8 years of experience). Each expert is sent one third of the items from the instrument to be validated, selected randomly, and they are asked to reply to a dual Likert scale about the appropriateness and clarity of each item. The statistical analysis of the responses allows to eliminate the items not validated due to the lack of consensus regarding the item’s appropriateness and clarity. This first validation gives rise to a new tool, smaller than before, that then undergoes a second phase of validation.
  • 2nd phase of validation (experts with at least 20 years of experience). In this phase the number of items has been previously considerably reduced, so the experts will be sent the reduced instrument, either whole or divided into two parts, for validation and for assessing the appropriateness of the item to the pre-established dimensions (according to Aiken’s V coefficient). After eliminating the items not validated by these experts, the final instrument is obtained.

C) Weighting of the indicators of the final instrument

Given that the items do not all have the same weight or importance in relation to the construct to be measured, the items must be given relative weights amongst them in relative terms (weighing), once the final instrument has been obtained. For this purpose the members of the research and work teams at this point in the investigation assign scores to each item by completing a questionnaire. The result of this analysis must be submitted to the consideration of the research and work teams, who must attempt to reach a consensus regarding the weight of each item in relation to the others. This is how the items comprising the instrument are internally weighted.

Next phase: Application of measuring instrument in different countries [read more]